What is Amortization?

What is Amortization?

Amortization is an accounting practice that gradually reduces the book value of an intangible asset or debt over time. It is also the process of distributing loan payments over time. Understanding this concept in depth may help you manage your intangible assets and expenses efficiently. 

The term “amortization” refers to two scenarios. The first is the payment of the monthly principal and interest amount to repay the debt over a time period.  

Secondly, amortization means the process of distributing capital expenditures associated with intangible assets over a useful life period. If you are looking for small finances than consider microloans for small businesses.

Importance of Amortization

Amortizing intangible assets is crucial since it can lower a company’s taxable income while improving investor transparency on the firm’s real profitability. Additionally, intangible assets have a limited useful life; with time, patents and trademarks may become obsolete and lose value. Amortization is just another way to look at how a business has leveraged the advantages of intangible assets.

A loan amortization schedule represents the entire table of periodic loan payments, including the principal and interest amounts for each level payment until the loan is paid off. 

Early in the loan, a larger portion of the flat monthly payment goes toward interest; however, as payments are made, a larger portion of the payment is applied to the principal amount of the loan. 

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Calculating The Principal Amount For Loan Amortization

The following calculation can be used to determine the monthly principal owed on an amortized loan:

Principal Payment = TMP – [OLB x (Interest Rates / 12 months)]

TMP = Total Monthly Payment 

OLB = Outstanding Loan Balance

When you take out a loan, the total monthly amount is usually stated. However, you may also need to compute the monthly payment if you’re trying to estimate or compare payments based on certain specific parameters, such as the payment frequency, loan term, and interest rate.

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Preparing Amortization Schedules

Amortization schedules typically consist of six columns, each of which provides the lender and borrower with repayment information. Typically, the six columns are arranged as follows:

Period Beginning Loan BalancePaymentInterest PrincipalEnding Loan Balance
The month or the periodDebt balance at the beginning of the month or termMonthly payment amount (usually a set amount over the loan duration)Interest amount included in the payment (interest calculated as loan balance * 1/12).Principal amount (Payment – Interest) included in loan paymentsThe remaining balance at the end of the month or term period (Principal – Beginning Loan Balance)
  • The period, often expressed monthly, is the date of each loan installment. Whether a loan is due every month, two weeks, or three weeks, the duration will remain the same because each row on an amortization schedule table indicates a payment. There are many options of loan repayment.
  • The total amount of debt owing at the start of the term is known as the initial loan balance. This sum represents either the initial loan amount or the amount carried over from the previous month (the loan balance from the previous month’s end matches the loan balance from the start of the next month).
  • The monthly payment amount is determined using the above table. It will frequently stay the same throughout the loan period. Although interest and principal are typically calculated after the payment amount, payment is equal to the total of principal and interest. 

The Benefits of Amortizing a Loan

Borrowers with amortized loans can diligently manage their future cash flows as they have a consistent payment schedule for the duration of the loan. 

Another advantage of amortized loans is that each payment always includes a principal amount, resulting in a gradual reduction of the loan’s outstanding balance over time.


Amortization is a fundamental component of debt management that involves gradually reducing the due balance over a time period. This systematic reduction in debt plays a crucial role in achieving financial stability and long-term debt repayment goals. 

Similarly, amortization of intangible assets involves a monthly reduction of a defined percentage of the asset’s book value, which helps to distribute the asset’s benefit over a time period. 

Amortization is certainly helpful in managing debt; however, loans serve as an initial capital source required to strengthen the firm’s financial capabilities. Indifi offers small business and micro loans at reasonable rates with full flexibility to repay them in monthly installments.  Hence, strengthen your business’ finances with Indifi’s ultimate financial solutions. 


What is the primary goal of amortization?

Amortization is utilized to gradually reduce the book value of an intangible asset or debt. It is the process of distributing loan payments over a period of time. 

How is the rate of amortization determined?

To calculate a loan’s monthly interest rate, multiply the entire loan amount by the interest rate at the beginning of the first month. Then, divide the total interest by 12 to get the monthly interest rate. 

What kind of assets undergo amortization?

All intangible (non-physical) assets, such as trademarks, goodwill, patents, and other forms of intellectual property, can undergo amortization. However, for tax reasons, the majority of intangibles must be amortized over a 15-year period.

What is Amortization in Simple Terms?

Amortization is an accounting method that gradually reduces the book value of a loan or an intangible asset over a specific period. For loans, it means spreading out the payments over time. When it comes to assets, amortization works similarly to depreciation.

What is the difference between Amortization & Depreciation?

  • Amortization and depreciation are both methods used to allocate the cost of business assets over time.
  • Amortization involves spreading the cost of an intangible asset over its useful life.
  • Depreciation entails expensing a tangible fixed asset as it is used, to account for its expected wear and tear.

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